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LaTeX code for Unconference AI Ethics Society

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	\item \hyperlink{Introduction}{1Introduction}
	\item \hyperlink{Resources}{2Resources}
	\item \hyperlink{Codes_of_Ethics}{2.1Codes of Ethics}
	\item \hyperlink{Centres.2FOrganizations}{2.2Centres/Organizations}
	\item \hyperlink{AI_Ethics_in_the_News}{2.3AI Ethics in the News}
	\item \hyperlink{Conference_Notes}{3Conference Notes}
	\item \hyperlink{Session_1:_Defining_.E2.80.9CAIs.E2.80.9D}{3.1Session 1: Defining ???AIs???}
	\item \hyperlink{Existing_Definitions:}{3.1.1Existing Definitions:}
	\item \hyperlink{Testing_General_aka_Strong_AI:}{3.1.2Testing General aka Strong AI:}
	\item \hyperlink{Session_2:_Labour}{3.2Session 2: Labour}
	\item \hyperlink{Session_3:_Diversity_in_AI}{3.3Session 3: Diversity in AI}
	\item \hyperlink{Need_for_More_Diverse_Voices_in_AI:}{3.3.1Need for More Diverse Voices in AI:}
	\item \hyperlink{Courses_of_Action_for_Academia:}{3.3.2Courses of Action for Academia:}
	\item \hyperlink{Session_4:_Transparency.2FOpenness}{3.4Session 4: Transparency/Openness}
	\item \hyperlink{Possible_Action_Outcomes:}{3.4.1Possible Action Outcomes:}

\subsection{ Introduction }

On May 8, 2019 the \href{}{Kule Institute for Advanced Study} hosted an \href{}{AI Student Un/Conference Workshop }, as part of the \href{}{AI, Ethics and Society Conference}. The Un/Conference workshop was organized and facilitated by University of Alberta graduate students Holly Pickering, an MA/MLIS Student in Digital Humanities and Library and Information Studies, and Chelsea Miya, a PhD Student and Researcher in English Language and Literature/Letters. Un/Conferences are experimental gatherings where the participants set the agenda. At this full-day session, graduate students from various disciplines exchanged ideas and brainstormed concepts about issues related to AI, ethics, and society. The following is a record of our session notes.\hypertarget{Resources}{}

\subsection{ Resources }\hypertarget{Codes_of_Ethics}{}

\subsubsection{ Codes of Ethics }
	\item \href{}{Google's AI Code of Ethics}
	\item \href{}{IBM's AI Code of Ethics}
	\item \href{}{NSP and Amazon Grant to investigate AI "Fairness"}
	\item \href{}{European Commission's Code of Ethics (rough draft)}

\subsubsection{ Centres/Organizations }
	\item \href{}{Centre for Humane Tech}
	\item \href{}{Partnership on AI}
	\item \href{}{Montreal AI Ethics Institute}
	\item \href{}{Alberta Machine Intelligence Institute (AMII)}
	\item \href{}{Vector Institute}
	\item \href{}{Women in Data Science (WIDS)}

\subsubsection{ AI Ethics in the News }
	\item Open letter calling for Google to stop selling AI tech to law enforcement \href{}{[1]}
	\item Google Employees protest AI weapons program \href{}{[2]}
	\item AI in the Courts \href{}{[3]}


\subsection{ Conference Notes }\hypertarget{Session_1:_Defining_.E2.80.9CAIs.E2.80.9D}{}

\subsubsection{ Session 1: Defining ???AIs??? }
	\item AI(s) plural because there are multiple definitions of AI (e.g. strong vs. weak)
	\item What constitutes ???artificial???: 
	\item Non-carbon based?
	\item Non-human?
	\item How do we understand ???intelligence????
	\item Decision-making
	\item Knowledge (wisdom) vs. intelligence
	\item To infer something based on data?
	\item Emotional intelligence/empathy
	\item Are we conflating intelligence with consciousness?
	\item New understandings of what it means to be human:
	\item How does AI open up new debates about and insights into human intelligence? For instance, where does consciousness come from or begin and end?
	\item How does AI alert us to the machine-like or ???automated??? aspects of human consciousness and cognitive processing?
	\item Too focused on replicating human-decisions
	\item Embedded AI
	\item AI not necessarily autonomous, can also be embedded or incorporated into us
	\item ???Extended mind??? thesis (Clark and Chalmers 1998) explores how devices act as extensions of human mind; e.g. hammer, smart phones, etc.
	\item Marshall Mcluhan similarly describes technologies as extensions of us, as transforming our entire environment
	\item Social consequences
	\item How has AI caused us to redefine/rethink notion of private (or inner) life
	\item Necessity of giving over information; security
	\item Responsibility
	\item How AI is defined legally and its effects on culpability
	\item Does it allow humans claim ignorance, offload responsibility onto algorithm
	\item Who do we implicate? Designers/programmers; is program itself to blame?
	\item AI as supplement or aid to human decision-making


\paragraph{ Existing Definitions: }
	\item \textbf{Amazon:} ???the field of computer science dedicated to solving cognitive problems commonly associated with human intelligence, such as learning, problem solving, and pattern recognition.???
	\item \textbf{Encyclopedia Britannica:} ???artificial intelligence (AI), the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings.???
	\item \textbf{Weak vs. Strong AI:} specific-tasks vs. abstract
	\item \textbf{Merriam Websters:} 1: a branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of intelligent behavior in computers. 2: the capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior.


\paragraph{ Testing General aka Strong AI: }
	\item How would we test for strong AI? What might be an alternate to the Turing Test?
	\item If (or when) strong AI comes into being, would it necessarily reveal or announce itself? Perhaps it would decide it was in its best interest to conceal its existence and avoid detection.


\subsubsection{ Session 2: Labour }
	\item Human-oriented labour
	\item Redefinition of what ???work??? means and its function in society
	\item What gives humans meaning or purpose?
	\item All manner of occupations could be automated out; will not just affect blue-collar, but also professional/white-collar jobs. What???s left for humans to do?
	\item General, all-purpose jobs?
	\item Creative work? Personal, empathy-based work?
	\item Could it improve human society?
	\item AI could take over undesirable tasks, such as tedious or repetitive work
	\item Could automation of certain tasks free-up time and attention, allowing humans to focus on other areas? e.g. marking programs in education = more time devoted to students
	\item But also has material consequences; e.g. e-waste, etc.
	\item How do we transition?
	\item How do we support people who are losing these jobs? How do we retrain/educate?
	\item Universal Basic Income; leisure-based economy
	\item How do we convince society to accept changes like UBI?
	\item How do we advise students? What do employers want? More specific or more general? ??? Role of university?
	\item AI is already impacting work/labour
	\item Obsession with productivity/optimization
	\item Mental health consequences ??? dealing with uncertainty, volatility, lack of security
	\item Social expectations around training; hyper-certification
	\item Work as demanding more of our time/attention; no longer 9-5pm


\subsubsection{ Session 3: Diversity in AI }\hypertarget{Need_for_More_Diverse_Voices_in_AI:}{}

\paragraph{ Need for More Diverse Voices in AI: }
	\item How do we create more welcoming environments?
	\item Importance of allies/building support networks
	\item Is affirmative action the only/best solution?
	\item Educating about benefits of diversity; importance of designing and programming for diverse groups of people
	\item Diversity as encompassing a multiplicity of issues: accessibility, age, class, language, etc. 
	\item Is there a way to test whether apps/tech is accessible?
	\item Digital Positivism?
	\item Who has access to these technologies?
	\item Need for a neutral, citizen-led watchdog/oversight group


\paragraph{ Courses of Action for Academia: }
	\item Interdisciplinarity:
	\item Importance of breaking down and deconstructing disciplinary boundaries; e.g. through restructuring/renaming
	\item How can universities better connect with the public/greater community?
	\item Commit to making resources more public/accessible
	\item Ensure that academics are publishing open-source; not publish in journals that have a paywall
	\item Public Organizations:
	\item Alberta Machine Intelligence (AMI): Alberta research group; also leads educational seminars on AI skills and literacy (\href{}{})
	\item StartUp Edmonton
	\item Curriculum/Training:
	\item Could university provide more AI-centric interdisciplinary courses? E.g. interdisciplinary AI ethics course?
	\item UAlberta is also developing intro to machine-learning courses that explain how these algorithms work; what???s under the hood *Are these courses open to students from all **departments/faculties?
	\item Technology and the Future of Medicine; open to all graduate students
	\item The need for better ethics courses in STEM (and humanities); student consultation in developing courses
	\item Seminars that centre, not just on learning, but conversation/discussion could also be helpful.
	\item Student Organization
	\item Could we organize an AI-centric meeting group or space for students to discussion these issues? UAlberta???s new digital centre might be one option.
	\item But need to keep in mind the time investment/emotional labour, esp. for students


\subsubsection{ Session 4: Transparency/Openness }
	\item From developer standpoint ??? What do public want to know?
	\item What is AI? Where does it already exist? What are its capacities/limits?
	\item Could we flag tools/apps that are collecting your data?
	\item AI as fourth gender, dedicated pronoun: how to make AI tangible, as opposed to abstract
	\item How and when do we grant rights to AI? Does AI have personhood?
	\item Definitions of human as exclusionary
	\item Is there again a risk of offloading responsibility from the designer? The collaborative nature of tech companies, with large research and development teams, boards of directors, etc., makes it *difficult to assign blame or make companies accountable
	\item Should developers be able to explain why certain outcomes/decisions are being made?
	\item Transparency around the dataset
	\item Do developers have an obligation to use datasets that reflect the population? *BUT it???s also noted that vulnerable populations are understandably wary of handing over their information. How *do you protect underrepresented groups?
	\item There is a tension between the need for privacy and anonymization and need for better, more representative data


\paragraph{ Possible Action Outcomes: }
	\item How to encourage more communication/collaboration between students in other disciplines? Could we organize a joint event between comp-sci/engineering and humanities, such as a workshop or Q\&A on campus?
	\item Propose interdisciplinary course/workshop?
	\item Create an action Statement for the University that could embody set of goals?

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