# LaTeX code for Poster Proposal of GWrit

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\subsection{\textbf{ The Game of Writing: Gamification and Social Commenting in Writing Instruction}}

How can we test gamification and social learning in online writing environments? This poster will demonstrate an online writing environment, GWrit (Game of Writing), where students can comment on each other???s writing and where they get rewards for task activity in a cooperative environment (gamification in this instance is not competitive). The application of game-based learning strategies to teaching writing shows promise, with one study reporting that their role-playing game improved the quality of student writing (Wang, Chen, Chang \& Chan, 2016). GWrit has been developed by a cross-disciplinary team of  academics and programmers at the University of Alberta over the past three years and has been used with over 1000 students.

This poster/demonstration brings together research on GWrit from the following perspectives: gamification, social-network influenced peer review, and the task completion structures. Our research will be summarized on the poster and we will demonstrate the environment during the poster session.

\textbf{Gamification.} Deterding (2011) defined gamification as the use of game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts to engage people in solving problems. Gamified environments employ a number of mechanisms to encourage people to engage with them (Dicheva et al., 2015), and existing studies prove that gamified learning environments create deeper engagement of students. (Barata, Gama, Jorge \& Gon??alves, 2013; Fitz-Walter, Tjondronegoro \& Wyeth, 2012). Following Deterding???s definition, we incorporates gamification analytics, feedback, and social-media inspired commenting in a cooperative environment, as the key pedagogical innovations behind GWrit. Traditional schooling is part of the problem: many students perceive it as ineffective and boring (Dicheva, Dichev, Agre \& Angelova, 2015), and many students need flexible learning platforms to enable them to balance work/life responsibilities. Our gamified  environment has many ???surface??? (award trigger systems, competitive environments, badges, and ranks) as well as ???deep??? gamification components (task completion structures, social commenting support, public posting of draft documents).

When demonstrating GWrit we will first introduce the way the system was designed to support experimenting with commenting and gamification, and then show the gamification rule editing environment we developed. Our working hypothesis was that users want information about what they are doing and that gamification can be a playful way of representing that information back to the users so that they can make decisions and possibly be motivated differently. This proved to be true in the commenting components of the course, but the task completion components need further refinement. The poster will summarize usability research we have done on the system.

In our discussion of the research on the poster we will summarize interview data on why we think the various aspects of the system work, which areas we think need to be improved to work better, and how we intend to transform a curriculum-based tool (the course-based version of GWrit) into a free-standing, web-based site.

\textbf{References:}

Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., \& Gon??alves, D. (2013). Improving Participation and Learning with Gamification. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications (pp. 10???17). New York, NY, USA: ACM. \href{http://doi.org/10.1145/2583008.2583010}{http://doi.org/10.1145/2583008.2583010}

Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., \& Nacke, L. (2011). From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining ???Gamification.??? In Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (pp. 9???15). New York, NY, USA: ACM. \href{http://doi.org/10.1145/2181037.2181040}{http://doi.org/10.1145/2181037.2181040}

Dicheva, D., Dichev, C., Agre, G., \& Angelova, G. (2015). Gamification in Education: A Systematic Mapping Study. Journal of Educational Technology \& Society, 18(3), 75???88.

Fitz-Walter, Z., Tjondronegoro, D., \& Wyeth, P. (2012). A Gamified Mobile Application for Engaging New Students at University Orientation. In Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference (pp. 138???141). New York, NY, USA: ACM. \href{http://doi.org/10.1145/2414536.2414560}{http://doi.org/10.1145/2414536.2414560}

Guasch, T., Espasa, A., Alvarez, I.M., \& Kirschner, P. A. (2013). Effects of feedback on collaborative writing in an online learning environment, Distance Education, 34:3, 324-338, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2013.835772

Ion, G., Barrera-Corominas, A., \& Tom??s-Folch, M. (2016). Written peer-feedback to enhance students??? current and future learning. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 13:15. DOI 10.1186/s41239-016-0017-y

Hasan, L., Morris, A., \& Probets, S. (2009). Using Google Analytics to Evaluate the Usability of E-Commerce Sites. In M. Kurosu (Ed.), Human Centered Design (pp. 697???706). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from \href{http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-02806-9_81}{http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-02806-9\_81}

Schunn, C., Godley, A.,  \& DeMartino, S.  (2016). The Reliability and Validity of Peer Review of Writing in High School AP English Classes. Journal of Adolescent Literacy 60:1, 13-23.

Tsuiping C. (2016). Technology-supported peer feedback in ESL/EFL writing classes: a research synthesis, Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29:2, 365-397. DOI: 10.1080/09588221.2014.960942

Tian, S. W., Yu, A. Y., Vogel, D., \& Kwok, R. C. W. (2011). The impact of online social networking on learning: a social integration perspective. International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, 8(3/4), 264. \href{http://doi.org/10.1504/IJNVO.2011.039999}{http://doi.org/10.1504/IJNVO.2011.039999}

Wang, J. H., Chen, S. Y., Chang, B., \& Chan, T.W.  (2016). From integrative to game-based integrative peer response: high ability versus low ability. Journal of Computer-assisted Learning, 32, 170???185.  doi: 10.1111/jcal.12125

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