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\begin{document}
\begin{tabular}

\subsection{Contents}
\begin{itemize}
	\item \hyperlink{History}{1History}
	\item \hyperlink{What_is_Metadata.3F}{2What is Metadata?}
	\item \hyperlink{Types}{3Types}
	\item \hyperlink{What_does_metadata_do.3F}{4What does metadata do?}
	\item \hyperlink{Metadata_standards}{5Metadata standards}
\begin{itemize}
	\item \hyperlink{Dublin_Core}{5.1Dublin Core}
\end{itemize}
	\item \hyperlink{Syntax_Structure}{6Syntax Structure}
	\item \hyperlink{References}{7References}
\end{itemize}
\end{tabular}\hypertarget{History}{}

\subsection{ History }

The term "Metadata" was first created by Philip Bagley in 1968, in his book \textit{Extension of programming language concepts}. Since then the fields of information management, information technology, information science, librarianship and GIS have widely adopted this term.\hypertarget{What_is_Metadata.3F}{}

\subsection{ What is Metadata? }

To be brief and simple, metadata is "data about data", defined by OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) and NCSA (National Center of Supercomputing Applications). To be precisely, metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise make it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource. 

Metadata has been applied in many fields, and each of which has a unique definition of metadata. So there isn't an agreed definition that describes all kinds of metadata used in every field.\href{/index.php/File:Card_cataloge.jpg}{
\includegraphics{/AnnokiUploadAuth.php/thumb/5/53/Card_cataloge.jpg/250px-Card_cataloge.jpg}}\href{/index.php/File:Card_cataloge.jpg}{
\includegraphics{/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png}}card cataloge of a book


\\
\begin{description}
\begin{description}Here's an example of simple metadata, a card catalog of a book in past days. There are author, title, subtitle, publisher, date of publication, place of publication, etc. All data about a book, which is also data.
\end{description}
\end{description}


\\Now we mostly focus on metadata in digital format and web resources.\hypertarget{Types}{}

\subsection{ Types }

There are three basic types of metadata, sorted by NISO (National Information Standards Organization).


\\
\begin{itemize}
	\item Structural Metadata - data about containers of data
\end{itemize}
\begin{description}This is actually what Philip meant when he first mentioned the word "metadata".
\end{description}
\begin{description}Structural metadata shows how compound objects are put together.     
\begin{description}e.g. How pages are ordered to form chapters.
\end{description}Structural metadata often means the inner order, structure, schema of data.
\end{description}


\\
\begin{itemize}
	\item Descriptive Metadata - data about data content
\end{itemize}
\begin{description}This is the type of metadata which is the most similar to the definition of "data about data".
\end{description}
\begin{description}Descriptive metadata means a resource for purpose such as discovery and identification.
\begin{description}e.g. title, abstract, author, keyword, publisher, etc.
\end{description}
\end{description}


\\
\begin{itemize}
	\item Administrative Metadata - provides information to help manage a resource
\end{itemize}
\begin{description}e.g. when and how it was created, location, who has the authority to access, file type, etc.
\end{description}\hypertarget{What_does_metadata_do.3F}{}

\subsection{ What does metadata do? }
\begin{itemize}
	\item Discovery and identification
\end{itemize}
\begin{description}Metadata helps people retrieve and identify resources. Usually these metadata includes but not limits to, author, title, date, keyword, and other simple information.
\end{description}
\begin{itemize}
	\item Cataloging
\end{itemize}
\begin{description}Metadata helps people catalog and describe data cell. These metadata often includes many information of the data, such as contents, carriers, location, etc.
\end{description}
\begin{itemize}
	\item Resource administration
\end{itemize}
\begin{description}Metadata helps people manage, store and use information.Besides cataloging information, these metadata also includes right/Privacy management, Digital signature, Seal of Approval/Rating, Access management, Payment and accounting, etc.
\end{description}
\begin{itemize}
	\item Preservation and Archiving
\end{itemize}
\begin{description}Metadata helps support long-term preservation for resources.Besides the description and identification of resources, these metadata also includes specific information of format, creation, migration methods, etc.
\end{description}\hypertarget{Metadata_standards}{}

\subsection{ Metadata standards }
\begin{tabular}\hline 
\textbf{Standard} & \textbf{Focus} \\ 
\hline
DDI & Archiving and Social Science \\ 
\hline
EAD & Archiving \\ 
\hline
CDWA/VRA Core & Arts \\ 
\hline
Darwin Core & Biology \\ 
\hline
ONIX & Book industry \\ 
\hline
CWM & Data warehousing \\ 
\hline
EML & Ecology \\ 
\hline
IEEE LOM & Education \\ 
\hline
CSDGM / ISO 19115 & Geographic data \\ 
\hline
e-GMS & Government \\ 
\hline
GILS & Government/Organizations \\ 
\hline
TEI & Humanities, social science and linguistics \\ 
\hline
NISO MIX & Images \\ 
\hline
$<$indecs$>$ & Intellectual property \\ 
\hline
MARC/METS/MODS/XOBIS & Librianship \\ 
\hline
PBCore & Media \\ 
\hline
MPEG-7 & Multimedia \\ 
\hline
MEI & Music notation \\ 
\hline
Dublin Core/DOI & Networked resources \\ 
\hline
ISO/IEC 1179 & Organizations \\ 
\hline
ISO/IEC 19506 & Software system \\ 
\hline
ISO 23081/MoReq2010 & Records management \\ 
\hline
DIF & Scientific data sets \\ 
\hline
RDF & Web resources \\ 
\hline

\end{tabular}

(seen in wikipedia - metadata standards)\hypertarget{Dublin_Core}{}

\subsubsection{ Dublin Core }

Also known as DCMI, stands for Cublin Core Metadata Initiative.

Dublin Core is the most common standard both for digital libraries and web sources.

Dubin Core is a set of vocabulary terms which can be used to describe resources for the purposes of discovery.
\begin{itemize}
	\item Title
	\item Creator
	\item Subject and keyword
	\item Description
	\item Publisher
	\item Contributor
	\item Date
	\item Type
	\item Format
	\item Identifier
	\item Source
	\item Language
	\item Relation
	\item Coverage
	\item Rights
\end{itemize}

There's a simple example of metadata based on Dublin Core: 
\begin{verbatim}
 Title=???Metadata Demystified???
 Creator=???Brand, Amy???
 Creator=???Daly, Frank???
 Creator=???Meyers, Barbara???
 Subject=???metadata???
 Description=???Presents an overview of metadata conventions in publishing.???
 Publisher=???NISO Press???
 Publisher=???The Sheridan Press???
 Date=???2003-07"
 Type=???Text???
 Format=???application/pdf???
 Identifier=???\href{http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/Metadata_Demystified.pdf???}{http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/Metadata_Demystified.pdf???}
 Language=???en???
\end{verbatim}

(NISO, understanding metadata, 2004)\hypertarget{Syntax_Structure}{}

\subsection{ Syntax Structure }

A single metadata document could be expressed in one or a few different kinds of markup and programming languages, each in different grammar and syntax.

XML is one of the most common format of metadata, among which, RDF(The Resource description Framework) has been used as a well-known language.

Here's an example of RDF:
\begin{verbatim}
 $<$RDF xmlns="\href{http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#}{http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#}" 
   xmlns:dc="\href{http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/}{http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/}"$>$ 
 $<$Description about="\href{http://www.w3.org/Press/99Folio.pdf}{http://www.w3.org/Press/99Folio.pdf}"$>$
 $<$dc:title$>$The W3C Folio 1999$<$/dc:title$>$ 
 $<$dc:creator$>$W3C Communications Team$<$/dc:creator$>$ 
 $<$dc:date$>$1999-03-10$<$/dc:date$>$ 
 $<$dc:subject$>$Web development, World Wide Web Consortium, Interoperability of the Web$<$/dc:subject$>$ 
 $<$/Description$>$ 
 $<$/RDF$>$
\end{verbatim}

(W3C, Metadata Activity Statement)\hypertarget{References}{}

\subsection{ References }

\href{http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metadata#Metadata_types}{Wikipedia - Metadata}
\\\href{http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metadata_standards}{Wikipedia - Metadata Standards}
\\\href{http://www.niso.org/publications/press/UnderstandingMetadata.pdf}{NISO. 2004. Understanding Metadata}
\\\href{http://www.w3.org/Metadata/Activity.html}{W3C - Metadata Activity}
\\\href{http://baike.baidu.com/view/107838.htm#6}{Baidu Baike - Metadata}
\\

\end{document}