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\begin{document}\hypertarget{Congress_2013}{}

\section{Congress 2013}

On June 5, 2013 the History and Archives group will be presenting a paper at Congress in Victoria, Canada

"Click, Whir, Zing, ZOT! You've Got a Date!: The Early Use of Computers on a University Campus"\hypertarget{Abstract}{}

\subsubsection{\textit{Abstract}}

How were computers discussed by a university public? Computers made their way onto the campuses of large post-secondary institutions beginning in the late 1940s1. This paper looks at how computers and computing were discussed through the student and university newspapers of the University of Alberta. A combination of content analysis and close reading methods teased out three themes that will be discussed in the paper:
\\
\\1. How computers became research and funding priorities in the University. How a breadth of faculties including Arts and Education were experimenting with computing early on.
\\2. How the administrative use of computers contributed to growing anxieties on campus specifically about privacy and data collection.
\\3. How the computer was used for entertainment purposes like dating and match-making.
\\
\\Though the University of Alberta had a Computing Centre beginning in 1957 the first mention of the world ???computer??? in the Gateway student newspaper appears in a 1959 article describing ongoing campus construction projects; one of which includes a designated space for the University???s new digital computer, also referred to as the ???electronic brain???2. Originally used for research purposes in math, science, and engineering, the computer quickly became a useful tool in other faculties including Arts, Education, and Agriculture. By 1965 the University of Alberta was on its third computer, the IBM 7040, and it was being used around the clock.???Image - Users of Computing Facility for Research

In addition to research, the computer was used for a number of administrative purposes on campus as well. From the assembly of the telephone directory4 to accounting services5 computers assisted with day-to-day activities, though not always with the appreciation of staff and students. In the late 1960s anxieties over the use of computers in society and the potential threat to privacy grew as catchphrases like ???Do not Fold, Spindle or Mutilate??? indicate.6  At Sir George William University in Montreal students protesting discriminatory treatment by a faculty member occupied and then set fire to the University???s Computer Centre causing \$2 million dollars in damage7. The protestors??? choice to take over this building is symbolic of the importance of the computer for universities at this time as well as students??? distrust and contempt for these machines. Nevertheless in the student newspaper a number of articles at the same time were dedicated to computer dating and matchmaking. Regardless of the apparent suspicion of computers university students always found time for love. The project team???s ultimate goal is to understand public perceptions of computing (and humanities computing) in Canada but to do so we must first understand the history of the discourse around computing on campus. \\BibliographyLubar, Steven. ??????Do Not Fold, Spindle or Mutilate???: A Cultural History of the Punch Card.??? Journal of American Culture, Vol 15, issue 4 (Winter 1992), pages 43-55. DOI:??10.1111/j.1542-734X.1992.1504\_43.x Oke, David. ???Quaret-million deficit for SU.??? Gateway, October 5, 1976, Page 3. Scott, D.B. ???The Computer Centre.??? Folio, December 15, 1965, Page 1-2. Unknown. ???\$2 million damage at Sir George William as frustrated students burn, smash comp centre.??? Gateway, February 13, 1969, Page 3.

Unknown. ???New Telephone Directory.??? Gateway, October 25, 1963, Page 4.

Unknown. ???Three Modern Buildings with Better Facilities Nearing Completion.??? Gateway, November 6, 1959, Page 9.
\\\hypertarget{Paper}{}

\subsubsection{\textit{Paper}}

In the early years of computing how were computers discussed by a university public? A 1966 article in the University of Alberta student newspaper \textit{The Gateway} begins with:
\begin{description}"Attention, love-starved students. Tired of sitting home on Friday nights reading "Gulliver's Travels"? Board with lonely carrels in Cameron Library? Throw away your books, your solitude, and your inhibitions. Cupid Computer, the scientific approach to dating is presently being introduced at the U of A".
\end{description}

After filling out an 80 question survey that was then run through a computer to determine compatibility, Cupid Computer participants were promised the chance to find "ideal" dates. Some questions posed relate to: sex, race, religion, smoking and drinking behaviour, for males whether or not they have access to a car and for females whether or not this matters, how attractive one's friends find them, how political one is, one's position on skinny dipping, and whether or not one would try LSD. Originating out of London, Ontario from the company Computronics the program spread to campuses across Canada, brought to campus by university students themselves, and was hailed as "Canada's foremost IBM Dating Service" (Coryphaeus, 1966-67, v7, no09, pg 3-4).

Computers made their way onto the campuses of large post-secondary institutions beginning in the late 1940s (Scott, "The Computing Centre") and being the first to deal with the coming of the computer campuses offer a unique perspective. By looking at these early discussions of computers, by way of three separate publications from the same campus, we can tease out an early social history of the arrival of computers in Canadian society through the lens of post-secondary education. This study looks at early references to computers in three University of Alberta publications: \textit{The Gateway}, \textit{New Trail}, and \textit{Folio}. \textit{The Gateway} is the newspaper of the StudentsUnion and has been in circulation since 1910. \textit{New Trail}  is the publication of the University of Alberta Alumni Association. It began in 1920 under the name \textit{The Trail} eventually becoming \textit{New Trail} in 1942. In 1964 it was absorbed by \textit{Folio}, the newspaper of Public Relations Office that is also known as the "University of Alberta Staff Bulletin". The two publications remained a joint venture until 1982 when New Trail split off to again serve as the Alumni Association publication. All three of these publications continue to exist today and for our purposes here provide a unique look at the way computers were introduced on a university campus; from the student perspective, on behalf of Alumni, and from the University of Alberta itself.
\\

\\

This paper will:
\\
\begin{itemize}
\item  Describe our methodology;
\item  Present an historical account of the arrival of computers on the University of Alberta campus;
\item  Identify the themes that appear such as research and funding priorities, growing anxiety around privacy and data collection, rebellion on campus, and playful attitude of students as seen in the discussions around computer dating and matchmaking.
\end{itemize}

\\\textit{Methodology}
\\

Our methodology was a combination of content analysis and close reading. Peel's Praire Provinces is a resource of the University of Alberta Libraries; an online bibliography of books, newspaper issues, and other materials related to the development of the Prairies, as well as a searchable full-text collection of many of these items.  Using this website we searched \textit{The Gateway}, \textit{New Trail} and \textit{Folio} for all references to computer and downloaded for reading and coding all the relevant articles. The content analysis rubric was developed iteratively and coded for things such as:
\\
\begin{itemize}
\item  Title, Author and Year;
\item  The presence of photos or illustrations;
\item  Category of application (Science, Commerce, Industry, Government, the Arts and Humanities, the Library, or Education);
\item  Gender of named people;
\item  Discourse features such as the computer being described as a 'brain';
\item  Departments or faculties mentioned;
\item  Hype or anxiety present in the reference; and
\item  Types of computers mentioned where applicable.
\end{itemize}

\\The content analysis produced history and themes.

\textit{History}
\\The first reference to a digital computer comes in 1957 from \textit{New Trail}.  The article "Electronic Brain Aids University Research" describes a direct line teletype communication system with FERUT, a high speed digital electronic computer from the University of Toronto???s computation centre; according to the article ???Ambitious problems in the fields of physics, mathematics, engineering, statistics, etc., can now be solved on the campus in a matter of minutes???. (\textit{New Trail}, Vol. 15, No. 1)

\\Shortly following the success of this teletype link with FERUT in 1957 the University of Alberta became the third university in Canada with a computing facility, preceded by the University of Toronto in 1948 and the University of British Columbia also in 1957. The Royal McBee LGP 30 was primarily used for numerical calculations and after its arrival was quickly being used around the clock. Soon the LPG 30 was replaced with an IBM 1620 and an IBM 7040 after that. The improvement in the speed of calculations was measured in terms of electric desk calculators and human operators; the calculation speed of the LPG 30 was roughly equivalent to 500 human operators. With the purchase of the IBM 1620 in 1961 this speed increased 20-fold and then another 60-fold in 1964 with the addition of the IBM 740. The increased speed combined with accuracy of calculations by the digital computer meant that research that was "previously unthinkable" could be done. (Scott, Folio, "The Computer Centre Part One, Vol 2, No. 8, 1965)\href{/index.php/File:RoyalMcBee.jpg}{
\\

\\\textit{Themes}
\\

\textbf{Research and Funding}

By the time of the arrival of the IBM 740 on campus the Computer Centre was being used by over 30 different departments from nine different faculties. Though the highest rate of use was from departments located in the Faculty of Science researchers also included members of the Arts and Education communities.
\\\href{/index.php/File:Departments.png}{
\\

Though we know that each of these faculties are making use of the computer for there research the discussions around the type of research are most relegated to the use of computers in medical research. Two articles from 1967, in \textit{Folio} ("Computer to analyze electrocardiograms" \textit{Folio}, 1967) and \textit{New Trail}("Electronic heart watching" \textit{New Trail}, 1967) respectively, discuss a three year study in which computers are used to interpret the electrocardiograms of healthy patients. One 1970 article discusses the use of computers in nuclear medicine to measure blood flow through a patient's heart ("Immunology and Transplantation" \textit{New Trail}, February 1970)  and another describes the "great capacity and power" of the central computer at the U of A (Computers in Medicine, \textit{New Trail}, February 1970 )which is being used for health service utilization, assessing treatments, scientific investigatory tools, and by studying cells and simulating body functions. In addition to the use of the central computer the Faculty of Medicine at this time also has several smaller computers of its own for for local experiments.
\\

There is only limited mention of computers used in Arts research. The first mention is in a 1963 \textit{Gateway} article  announcing a talk by an Associate Professor of Computer Science titled "Application of Computers to Behavioural Science Research".(Unknown, 1963, Sociology Club)

\\The introduction of computers to the university public is presented through the lens of medical research.

\\

\\

\\
\\

\textbf{Antagonism}
\\
\\

One of the most powerful themes we found coming out of the student news paper the \textit{Gateway} is the antagonistic attitude of the magazine contributors. The 1966 article "the computer wins again" describes examination scheduling done by computer: "The examination schedule in use this year was efficient because more than 35,000 examination papers were written in slightly more than one week. But an electric chair is efficient too." The author goes on to elaborate the difficulties multiple exams have on students but posits the need to "beat the computer" rather than prepare for the exam. The author finishes with two suggestions: either holding exams over a two week period or option that s/he considers impossible: "build a small touch of mercy into the stainless steel soul of a certain university computer". (the computer wins again, 17 January 1966, Gateway).

Another 1966 article describes semi-computerized registration at the U of A and the author states: "Since we are doomed to become slaves of bureaucracy and the computer anyway, we might just as well go whole hog and have the machine work out the gory details which are just messed up by the human elements involved" (unknown, all hail the machine, September 28, 1966, 4, Gateway.)Similar in sentiment is another 1996 article describing the author's take on the university system in general; over population, impersonal computer programming, lack of a well-balanced education, and depersonalization caused by the computer. He finishes with the statement "Where all this leads us, I won't attempt to answer. Perhaps the ultimate cynic would look forward to the day when cybernetics will be able to replace us all." (Walker, a way of life, 26 January 1966, Gateway)$<$/br$>$

Computer job placement programs also appear around this time similar to the aforementioned computer dating services. BIB - Biographical Inventory Blank -  is a questionnaire designed to determine which areas of work a student is best suited for after it is fed through a computer.

\\
\begin{itemize}
\item  Jackson, 1972, point - Re: dehumanizing nature of U of A???s registration procedure and pre-registration report. Author states the U of A is not a pioneer in computer programming.
\item  Das, 1974, 1984? - Describes technological change - good and potentially bad: crime surveillance - police state; artificial insemination - motherhood in a test tube; computer dating (ideal mate) - gimmicky arranged marriages;
\item  Fisk, 1975, The evils of university ???education??? - Describes the ???evil tendencies??? of university education in Canada: anti-personal (computerized registration, payment), moral failures
\item  Krause, 1979, Lock up your data - Security concerns re: the university computer system. Issues regarding legal protection against computer theft.
\item  Parker, 1979, New feudalism dawning - Speculation on the evolution of society into a Feudal State. Predicts education will decrease while technology increases.
\end{itemize}

\\\textbf{Rebellion}
\\

One of the most interesting themes we see develop is in the lack of discussion on the topic of campus rebellion in both \textit{Folio} and \textit{New Trail}. The 1960's are a time of major social upheaval and 1968 is widely remembered as a year of protest worldwide with a number of movements supported by college and university students and in many cases actually occurring on campuses. At Sir George Williams University (SGW) in Montreal the Computer Centre becomes a focal point for exactly this type of student rebellion.  In 1969 disgruntled students that charged a professor of biology with racism led a protest that ultimately took over the university's computer centre. It was reported in \textit{The Gateway} that over 300 students held the centre for over five days before the centre was set on fire and destroyed incurring \\$2 million in damages.

Other articles in \textit{The Gateway} go on to describe the aftermath of the burning of the computer centre; in addition to the arrest and prosecution of many of those involved the response of university administrators, including the arrival of codes of student behaviour on campuses and on Ontario campuses the introduction of a working paper 'Order on Campus, are detailed. Though \textit{New Trail} and \textit{Folio} are not necessarily focused on external campus events it is noteworthy that there is no mention of the University of Alberta administrators' response in reference to the SGW incident.

\textit{Computer Dating}

End with computer datingSet of anxieties, but playful with students (dating brought by students)

The arrival of Cupid Computer on campus in 1966 was not the first attempt at match-making at the U of A. The year prior it was excitedly reported that a computer would be used to select dates for the Wauneita dance hosted annually by a women???s fraternity. Sadly the necessary instructions did not arrive on time and ???computerized romance proved to be a failure??? (Unknown, 1965, Computerized romance proves to be a failure)

IBM keeps it in the family \href{http://http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/GAT/1966/12/09/16/Ar01600.html?query=newspapers|computer|%28pubyear%3A1966%29+AND+%28publication%3AGAT%29|score}{[1]}

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